Patriarchs and Prophets from books by Alfred Edersheim. Yet since those same titles are found in books Ellen White wrote 12 years before Edersheim wrote his, one is left to wonder if this case of plagiarism might be the other way around. Take a look and see what you think."; $description_image = ""; $keywords = "Ellen Gould White, e. g. white, plagiarism, prophet, seventh-day adventists, sda, adventism, spirit of prophecy"; $copy = "2005"; $this_page_cats = array ("The Real Titles", "Criticisms
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Ellen White Copied Her Chapter Titles from Edersheim . . . or Was It Vice Versa?

Part Two

If you haven't already done so, you might want to take a look at Part One first. In Part One we compare the chapter titles of Alfred Edersheim and Patriarchs and Prophets with those of Ellen White's earlier books. In this page we compare Edersheim's actual chapter titles with what Walter Rea claimed were his chapter titles.

Further Analysis

We present before you the material that David Conklin brought to our attention. David writes:

It has been noted by students of plagiarism that one can make a work look plagiarized when it is not by carefully using ellipses and discarding all the material that is different. What we want to do is determine whether the critics did a fair analysis, or whether their comparisons actually distorted reality. Accordingly, we have color coded the text so that you, the reader, can easily come to your own conclusion. . . .

Another factor the reader should pay attention to is the number of times that the sequence of the chapter titles was rearranged to make them more similar.

Color Key

Titles and parts of titles in Edersheim ignored by Rea by either not citing at all or by using an ellipsis.

The portion of the part of a title omitted by Rea without the use of an ellipsis.

The rest of a title that was omitted by Rea when he cited that title.

Words added to Edersheim by Rea that make Edersheim closer to Ellen White than he was.

We present for your consideration the following table. Please note:

  1. Since Rea included page numbers but not chapter numbers in his comparison, we have included the chapter numbers in adjoining columns.
  2. The fifth column shows Edersheim's actual, unaltered chapter titles.
  3. Three portions and two chapters from Patriarchs and Prophets that Rea omitted have been added in brackets.
  4. Page numbers of Edersheim's chapters that Rea omitted have been added in brackets.

Since Rea used an ellipsis to shorten "Trial of Abraham's Faith in the Command to Sacrifice Isaac" down to "Trial of Abraham's Faith...", we find it odd that he did not also use an ellipsis in the 13 instances marked in red. We cannot presently explain this inconsistency.

Chapter Titles and Page Numbers as Altered in Walter Rea's The White Lie Ch.
Edersheim's Original Chapter & Section Titles, Unaltered and Untampered With, Vol. 1
Ellen White's Patriarchs and Prophets (1890) Alfred Edersheim's The Bible History, Old Testament (1876-80)
  [Preface] [iii]   Preface
  [Introduction] [v]    
  [Contents]     Contents
        Dates of Events Recorded in the Book of Genesis, according to Hales, Ussher, and Keil
1 33 Why was Sin Permitted? xi Introduction   Introduction
        The World Before the Flood
2 44 The Creation 17 Creation 1 Creation—Man in the Garden of Eden—The Fall
3 52 The Temptation and Fall 17 The Fall 1
4 63 The Plan of Redemption      
5 71 Cain and Abel Tested 23 Cain and Abel—The Two Ways 2 Cain and Abel—The Two Ways and the Two Races
6 80 Seth and Enoch 29 Seth and His Descendants 3 Seth and His Descendants—The Race of Cain
    [33] 4 Genealogy of the Believing Race, Through Seth
    [37] 5 The Universal Corruption of Man—Preparation for the Flood
7 90 The Flood 44 The Flood 6 The Flood
        History of the Patriarchs
8 105 After the Flood 51 After the Flood 7 After the Flood—Noah's Sacrifice—Noah's Sin—Noah's Descendants
9 111 The Literal Week      
10 117 The Tower of Babel 57 Babel—Confusion of Tongues 8 Genealogy of Nations—Babel—Confusion of Tongues
    [64] 9 The Nations and their Religion—Job
    [68] 10 The Chronology of the Early History of the Bible—Commencement of the History of God's Dealings with Abraham and His Seed
11 125 The Call of Abraham 72 The Calling of Abram 11 The Calling of AbramHis Arrival in Canaan, and Temporary Removal to Egypt
12 132 Abraham in Canaan 72 His Arrival in Canaan 11
    [82] 12 The Separation of Abram and Lot—Abram at Hebron—Sodom Plundered—Lot Rescued—The Meeting with Melchizedek
13 145 The Test of Faith 97 Trial of Abraham's Faith... 14 Birth of Isaac—Ishmael Sent Away—Trial of Abraham's Faith in the Command to Sacrifice Isaac—Death of Sarah—Death of Abraham
14 156 Destruction of Sodom 88 The Destruction of Sodom 13 The Twofold Promise of "a Seed" to Abraham—Ishmael—Jehovah visits Abraham—The Destruction of Sodom—Abraham's Sojourn at Gerar—His Covenant with Abimelech
15 171 The Marriage of Isaac 106 The Marriage of Isaac 15 The Marriage of IsaacBirth of Esau And Jacob—Esau Sells His Birthright—Isaac at Gerar—Esau's Marriage
16 177 Jacob and Esau 106 Birth of Esau and Jacob 15
17 183 Jacob's Flight and Exile 115 Jacob Is Sent to Laban 16 Isaac's Blessing Obtained by Jacob Deceitfully—Esau's Sorrow—Evil Consequences of Their Error to All the Members of the Patriarchal Family—Jacob Is Sent to Laban—Isaac Renews and Fully Gives Him the Blessing of Abraham
    [121] 17 Jacob's Vision at Bethel—His Arrival at the House of Laban—Jacob's Double Marriage and Servitude—His Flight from Haran—Pursuit of Laban, and Reconciliation with Jacob
18 195 The Night of Wrestling 132 The Night of Wrestling 18 Jacob at Mahanaim—The Night of Wrestling—Reconciliation Between Jacob and Esau—Jacob Settles at Shechem—Jacob Proceeds to Bethel to Pay His Vow—Death of Rachel—Jacob Settles at Hebron
19 204 The Return to Canaan 132 Jacob Settles at Hebron 18
20 213 Joseph in Egypt 142 Joseph's Early Life 19 Joseph's Early Life—He Is Sold by His Brethren into Slavery—Joseph in the House of Potiphar—Joseph in Prison
    [151] 20 Joseph in Prison—The Dream of Pharaoh's Two Officers—The Dream of Pharaoh—Joseph's Exaltation—His Government of Egypt
21 224 Joseph and His Brothers 161 Joseph Recognizes His Brothers 21 The Sons of Jacob Arrive in Egypt to Buy Corn—Joseph Recognizes His Brothers—Imprisonment of Simeon—The Sons of Jacob Come a Second Time, Bringing Benjamin with Them—Joseph Tries His Brethren—He Makes Himself Known to Them—Jacob and His Family Prepare to Descend into Egypt
    [172] 22 Departure of Jacob and His Family into Egypt—Jacob's Interview with Pharaoh—His Last Illness and Command To Be Buried in Canaan—Adoption of Ephraim and Manasseh Among the Sons of Israel
    [180] 23 The Last Blessing of Jacob—Death of Jacob—Death of Joseph

Chapter Titles and Page Numbers as Altered in Walter Rea's The White Lie Ch.
Edersheim's Original Chapter & Section Titles, Unaltered and Untampered With, Vol. 2
Ellen White's Patriarchs and Prophets (1890) Alfred Edersheim's The Bible History, Old Testament (1876-80)
    [3]   Preface
    [5]   Contents
        The Exodus
    [9] 1 Egypt and Its History during the Stay of the Children of Israel, as Illustrated by the Bible and Ancient Monuments
    [24] 2 The Children of Israel in Egypt—Their Residences, Occupations, Social Arrangements, Constitution, and Religion—"A New King Who Knew Not Joseph"
22 241 Moses 35 The Birth and the Training of Moses 3 The Birth and the Training of Moses, Both in Egypt and in Midian as Preparatory to His Calling
    [44] 4 The Call of Moses—The Vision of the Burning Bush—The Commission to Pharaoh and to Israel—The Three "Signs" and Their Meaning
    [55] 5 Moses Returns into Egypt—The Dismissal of Zipporah—Moses Meets Aaron—Their Reception by the Children of Israel—Remarks on the Hardening of Pharaoh's Heart
23 257 The Plagues of Egypt 63 The Ten "Strokes," or Plagues 6 Moses and Aaron Deliver Their Message to Pharaoh—Increased Oppression of Israel—Discouragement of Moses—Aaron Shows a Sign—General View and Analysis of Each of the Ten "Strokes," or Plagues
24 273 The Passover 78 The Passover and Its Ordinances 7 The Passover and Its OrdinancesThe Children of Israel Leave Egypt—Their First Resting-places—The Pillar of Cloud and of Fire—Pursuit of Pharaoh—Passage Through the Red Sea—Destruction of Pharaoh and His Host—The Song "on the Other Side"
25 281 The Exodus 78 The Children of Israel Leave Egypt 7
        The Wanderings in the Wilderness
26 291 From the Red Sea to Sinai 89 The Wilderness of Shur 8 The Wilderness of Shur—The Sinaitic Peninsula—Its Scenery and Vegetation—Its Capabilities of Supporting a Population—The Wells of Moses—Three Days March to Marah—Elim—Road to the Wilderness of Sin—Israel's Murmuring—The Miraculous Provision of the Quails—The Manna
    [98] 9 Rephidim—The Defeat of Amalek and Its Meaning—The Visit of Jethro and Its Symbolical Import
27 303 The Law Given to Israel 105 The "Ten Words," and Their Meaning 10 Israel at the Foot of Mount Sinai—The Preparations for the Covenant—The "Ten Words," and Their Meaning
28 315 Idolatry at Sinai      
29 331 Satan's Enmity Against the Law 121 The Sin of the Golden Calf 12 The Pattern Seen on the Mountain—The Tabernacle, the Priesthood, and the Services in Their Arrangement and Typical Meaning—The Sin of the Golden Calf—The Divine Judgment—The Plea of Moses—God's Gracious Forgiveness—The Vision of the Glory of the Lord Vouchsafed to Moses
30 343 The Tabernacle and Its Services 133 The Rearing of the Tabernacle 13 Moses a Second Time on the Mount—On His Return His Face Shineth—The Rearing of the Tabernacle—Its Consecration by the Seen Presence of Jehovah
31 359 The Sin of Nadab and Abihu 137 The Sin of Nadab and Abihu 14 Analysis of the Book of Leviticus—The Sin of Nadab and Abihu—Judgment Upon the Blasphemer
    [143] 15 Analysis of the Book of Numbers—The Numbering of Israel, and That of the Levites—Arrangement of the Camp, and Its Symbolical Import—The March
    [152] 16 The Offerings of the "Princes"—The Setting Apart of the Levites—Second Observance of the Passover
32 363 The Law and the Covenants 114 Civil and Social Ordinances—The "Covenant Made by Sacrifice" 11 Civil and Social Ordinances of Israel As the People of God—Their Religious Ordinances in Their National Aspect—The "Covenant Made by Sacrifice" and the Sacrificial Meal of Acceptance
33 374 From Sinai to Kadesh 156 [March into the Wilderness] [We have no idea why there are brackets in The White Lie around this title.] 17 Departure from Sinai—March into the Wilderness of Paran—At Taberah and Kibroth-hattaavah
34 387 The Twelve Spies 163 The Spies Sent to Canaan 18 Murmuring of Miriam and Aaron—The Spies Sent to Canaan—Their "Evil Report"—Rebellion of the People, and Judgment Pronounced Upon Them—The Defeat of Israel "unto Hormah"
35 395 The Rebellion of Korah 171 The Gainsaying of Korah 19 The Thirty-eight Years in the Wilderness—The Sabbath-breaker—The Gainsaying of Korah and of His Associates—Murmuring of the People; the Plague, and How It Was Stayed—Aaron's Rod Budding, Blossoming, and Bearing Fruit
36 406 In the Wilderness 171 The Years in the Wilderness 19
37 411 The Smitten Rock 184 The Sin of Moses and Aaron 20 The Second Gathering of Israel in Kadesh—The Sin of Moses and Aaron—Embassy to Edom—Death of Aaron—Retreat of Israel from the Borders of Edom—Attack by the Canaanitish King of Arad
38 422 The Journey Around Edom 193 Journey of the Children of Israel in ... the Land of Edom 21 Journey of the Children of Israel in "Compassing" the Land of Edom—The "Fiery Serpents" and the "Brazen Serpent"—Israel Enters the Land of the Amorites—Victories over Sihon and over Og, the Kings of the Amorites and of Bashan—Israel Camps in "the Lowlands of Moab" Close by the Jordan
39 433 The Conquest of Bashan      

Chapter Titles and Page Numbers as Altered in Walter Rea's The White Lie Ch.
Edersheim's Original Chapter & Section Titles, Unaltered and Untampered With, Vol. 3
Ellen White's Patriarchs and Prophets (1890) Alfred Edersheim's The Bible History, Old Testament (1876-80)
    [3]   Preface
    [7]   Contents
    [10]   Chronological Table
        Israel in Canaan Under Joshua and the Judges
40 438 Balaam 11 Character and History of Balaam 1 Israel About to Take Possession of the Land of Promise—Decisive Contest Showing the Real Character of Heathenism—Character and History of Balaam
41 453 Apostasy at the Jordan 23 The End of Balaam 2 The "Prophecies" of Balaam—The End of Balaam—Parallel Between Balaam and Judas
42 462 The Law Repeated 33 The Second Census of Israel 3 The Second Census of Israel—The "Daughters of Zelophehad"—Appointment of Moses' Successor—Sacrificial Ordinances—The War Against Midian—Allocation of Territory East of the Jordan—Levitical and Cities of Refuge
43 469 The Death of Moses 42 Death and Burial of Moses 4 Death and Burial of Moses
    [46] 5 The Charge to Joshua—Despatch of the Two Spies to Jericho—Rahab
44 481 Crossing the Jordan 53 The Miraculous Parting of Jordan 6 The Miraculous Parting of Jordan, and the Passage of the Children of Israel—Gilgal and Its Meaning—The First Passover on the Soil of Palestine
45 487 The Fall of Jericho 58 The Miraculous Fall of Jericho 7 The "Prince of the Host of Jehovah" Appears to Joshua—The Miraculous Fall of Jericho Before the Ark of Jehovah
    [63] 8 Unsuccessful Attack Upon Ai—Achan's Sin, And Judgment—Ai Attacked a Second Time and Taken
46 499 The Blessings and the Curses 73 The Blessing and the Curse on Gerizim and Ebal 9.1 Solemn Dedication of the Land and of Israel on Mounts Ebal and Gerizim—The Deceit of the Gibeonites
47 505 League with the Gibeonites 72 The Deceit of the Gibeonites 9
    [80] 10 The Battle of Gibeon—Conquest of the South of Canaan—The Battle of Merom—Conquest of the North of Canaan—State of the Land at the Close of the Seven Years' War
48 510 The Division of Canaan 87 Final Division of the Land 11 Distribution of the Land—Unconquered Districts—Tribes East of the Jordan—"The Lot"—Tribes West of the Jordan—The Inheritance of Caleb—Dissatisfaction of the Sons of Joseph—The Tabernacle at Shiloh—Final Division of the Land
49 521 The Last Words of Joshua 96 Joshua's Farewell Addresses 12 Return of the Two and a Half Tribes to Their Homes—Building of an Altar by Them—Embassy to Them—Joshua's Farewell Addresses—Death of Joshua—Review of His Life and Work
50 525 Tithes and Offerings      
51 530 God's Care for the Poor      
52 537 The Annual Feasts 33 Sacrificial Ordinances 3 [We already posted the full title for chapter 3 above. White's title bears no similarity to Edersheim's.]
53 543 The Earlier Judges 105 Summary of the Book of Judges 13 Summary of the Book of Judges—Judah's and Simeon's Campaign—Spiritual and National Decay of Israel—"From Gilgal to Bochim."
    [114] 14 Othniel—Ehud—Shamgar
    [119] 15 The Oppression of Jabin and Sisera—Deborah and Barak—The Battle of Taanach—The Song of Deborah
    [130] 16 Midianitish Oppression—The Calling of Gideon—Judgment Begins at the House of God—The Holy War—The Night-battle of Moreh
    [142] 17 Farther Course of Gideon—The Ephod at Ophrah—Death of Gideon—Conspiracy of Abimelech—The Parable of Jotham—Rule and End of Abimelech
    [152] 18 Successors of Abimelech—Chronology of the Period—Israel's Renewed Apostacy, and Their Humiliation Before Jehovah—Oppression by the Ammonites—Jephthah—His History and Vow—The Successors of Jephthah
54 560 Samson 163 The History of Samson 19 Meaning of the History of Samson—His Annunciation and Early History—The Spirit of Jehovah "Impels Him"—His Deeds of Faith
    [173] 20 The Sin and Fall of Samson—Jehovah Departs from Him—Samson's Repentance, Faith, and Death
    [177] 21 Social and Religious Life in Bethlehem in the Days of the Judges—The Story of Ruth—King David's Ancestors

Chapter Titles and Page Numbers as Altered in Walter Rea's The White Lie Ch.
Edersheim's Original Chapter & Section Titles, Unaltered and Untampered With, Vol. 4
Ellen White's Patriarchs and Prophets (1890) Alfred Edersheim's The Bible History, Old Testament (1876-80)
    [iii]   Preface
    [x]   Contents of the First Book of Chronicles (to beginning of Chap. XX.), and List of the Parallel Narratives in the two Books of Samuel
    [xi]   Contents
        Israel Under Samuel, Saul, and David
55 569 The Child Samuel 1 Birth of Samuel 1 Purport and Lessons of the Books of Samuel—Eli—Hannah's Prayer and Vow—Birth of Samuel—Dedication of the Child—Hannah's Song
56 575 Eli and His Sons 10 The Sin of Eli's Sons 2 The Sin of Eli's Sons—Eli's Weakness—A Prophet's Message—Samuel's First Vision—His Call to the Prophetic Office
57 581 The Ark Taken by the Philistines 16 Taking of the Ark 3 Expedition Against the Philistines—The Two Battles of Eben-ezer—Death of Eli's Sons, and Taking of the Ark—Death of Eli—Judgment on the Philistine Cities—The Return of the Ark
58 592 The Schools of the Prophets 26 Samuel's Administration 4 Samuel As Prophet—The Gathering at Mizpeh—Battle of Eben-ezer; Its Consequences—Samuel's AdministrationThe Demand For a King
59 603 The First King of Israel 26 The Demand for a King 4
    [35] 5 The Calling of Saul—Occasion of His Interview with Samuel—Samuel Communes with Saul—Saul Is Anointed King—The Three "Signs"—Their Deeper Significance
    [47] 6 Saul Chosen King at Mizpeh—His Comparative Privacy—Incursion of Nahash—Relief of Jabesh-gilead—Popular Assembly at Gilgal—Address of Samuel
60 616 The Presumption of Saul 56 Saul's Disobedience 7 Saul Marches Against the Philistines—Position of the Two Camps—Jonathan's Feat of Arms—Saul Retreats to Gilgal—Terror Among the People—Saul's Disobedience to the Divine Command, and Rejection of His Kingdom
61 627 Saul Rejected 56 The Rejection of His Kingdom 7
    [64] 8 Camps of Israel and of the Philistines—Jonathan and His Armor-bearer—Panic Among the Philistines, and Flight—Saul's Rash Vow—The "Lot" Cast at Ajalon—Cessation of the War
    [71] 9 The War Against Amalek—Saul's Disobedience, and Its Motives—Samuel Commissioned to Announce Saul's Rejection—Agag Hewn in Pieces
62 637 The Anointing of David 79 The Anointing of David 10 Samuel Mourns For Saul—He Is Directed to the House of Jesse—Anointing of David—Preparation of David for the Royal Office—The "Evil Spirit from the Lord" upon Saul—David Is Sent to Court—War with the Philistines—Combat Between David and Goliath—Friendship of David and Jonathan
63 643 David and Goliath 79 Combat Between David and Goliath 10
64 649 David a Fugitive 94 David's Flight to Samuel 11 Saul's Jealousy, and Attempts upon David's Life—David Marries Michal—Ripening of Saul's Purpose of Murder—David's Flight to Samuel—Saul Among the Prophets—David Finally Leaves the Court of Saul
65 660 The Magnanimity of David 109 David and Jonathan 11.9 [This is a page heading that doesn't even match White's chapter title.]
    [111] 12 David at Nob—Observed by Doeg—Flight to Gath—David Feigns Madness—The Cave of Adullam—Shelter in Moab—Return to the Land of Israel—Jonathan's Last Visit—Persecutions by Saul
    [125] 13 Saul in David's Power at En-gedi—The Story of Nabal—Saul a Second Time in David's Power
66 675 The Death of Saul 147 Death of Saul 15 The Battle on Mount Gilboa—Death of Saul—Rescue of the Bodies by the Men of Jabesh-gilead—David Punishes the False Messenger of Saul's Death—David King at Hebron—Ish-bosheth King at Mahanaim—Battle Between the Forces of Abner and Joab—Abner Deserts the Cause of Ish-bosheth—Murder of Abner—Murder of Ish-bosheth
67 683 Ancient and Modern Sorcery 136 Saul ... the Witch of Endor 14 David's Second Flight to Gath—Residence at Ziklag—Expedition of the Philistines Against Israel—Saul at Jezreel—He Resorts to the Witch at Endor—Apparition and Message of Samuel—David Has to Leave the Army of the Philistines—Capture of Ziklag by the Amalekites—Pursuit and Victory of David
68 690 David at Ziklag 136 Capture of Ziklag by the Amalekites 14
69 697 David Called to the Throne 147 David King at Hebron 15 [Already cited above.]
70 The Reign of David 163 [Should be 162] David ... King over All Israel 16 David Anointed King over All Israel—Taking of Fort Zion—Philistine Defeat—The Ark Brought to Jerusalem—Liturgical Arrangements and Institutions
    [178] 17 David's Purpose of Building the Temple, and Its Postponement—The "Sure Mercies" of David in the Divine Promise—David's Thanksgiving
    [183] 18 Wars of David—Great Ammonite and Syrian Campaign Against Israel—Auxiliaries in Turn Defeated—The Capital of Moab Is Taken—Edom Subdued—Record of David's Officers—His Kindness to Mephibosheth
71 717 David's Sin and Repentance 190 David's Great Sin ... Repentance 19 Siege of Rabbah—David's Great Sin—Death of Uriah—Taking of Rabbah—David's Seeming Prosperity—God's Message Through Nathan—David's Repentance—The Child of Bathsheba Dies—Birth of Solomon
72 [727 The Rebellion of Absalom]      
73 [746 The Last Years of David]      


We can understand the desire to make matters as simple for readers as possible. Yet it still seems that Rea should have made it plain in his book that he was extremely truncating Edersheim's chapter titles. True, some rare reader might have guessed what was going on by noticing that some chapter titles cited fell on the same pages, but to avoid giving any false impressions, Rea should have stated clearly what he was doing.

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